Peace & Stability Journal Peace & Stability Journal, Volume 6, Issue 4 - Page 12

Introduction UN senior mission leadership development is a key strategic issue highlighted by both the 2015 UN High Level Panel Report on all aspects of Peace Operations and the 2015 Presidential Memorandum on ‘US Support to United Nations (UN) Peace Operations’ and was the principal topic addressed by Working Group 2. The US Presidential Summit on Peacekeeping in September 2015 and the 2014/15 UN Training Architecture Review were also reviewed as discussion points to address training deficiencies. The Training Need The Multicultural (involving civilian, military, and police components), Multidimensional (with multiple objectives and lines of activity) and Multinational aspects of today’s peace operations require an integrated comprehensive approach. Moreover the complexities and challenges of such operations require that the international response be, to the degree possible and practical, an effective multinational effort. Peace operations leadership is not something that can be learned ‘on-the-job’ while in the heat of a multitude of challenges and tasks and in a difficult security environment. The leaders selected for these operations, however, arrive with varying degrees of preparation, experience and understanding of the various dimensions and components required to achieve mission success. A fundamental requirement for all involved in peace operations, especially senior leaders, is a firm understanding and ability to execute effective coordinated civilian-military-police activities. It is only through the integrated education and training of civilian, military and police components that many challenges and impediments to civilian-military-police relations can be overcome, fostering closer cooperation and coordination. In addition to the education and training of senior leaders, the WG also considered much of the knowledge, skills and attributes of senior leaders need to be enhanced among key staff, advisors and mid-level management - uniformed and civilian personnel. Work Group Objectives and Deliverables Against this background and understanding of peace operations, WG#2 addressed the subject of educating and training (senior) leaders from four perspectives: an identification of the key competences for a leader with regard to knowledge, skills and attributes (KSA); identification of the resources available or required to deliver training needs; identification of opti- 10 mal delivery methods; and, identification of a community of practice to advance such education and training From there the Working Group developed ten recommendations to further the development and training of UN senior leaders. These recommendations will be shared with International Association of Peacekeeping Training Centers and the International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations. I – Leader Key Competencies The heart of the requisite knowledge competency was deemed to be understanding civilian-military-police relations and the multi-dimensional facets of peace operations. A senior leader must also be knowledgeable of key current challenges, such as Protection of Civilians (PoC), while promoting the highest standards of conduct, especially in the field of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA). Key attributes for senior leaders were adaptability (across organizations and cultures); building partnering relationships; and problem solving collaboration techniques. Other highly valued leadership attributes were flexibility, charisma, integrity, courage, patience, character, vision, tenacity and inspiration. Other ‘desirable’ skills in a peace operations leader might be: communication, team building, diplomacy, adaptability, time/resource/ financial management, negotiation and mediation, and proficiency in the common mission language. The WG suggested packaging the KSAs into a desirable leadership traits ‘profile’, which would act as a template for selecting leaders and senior staff. The profile could be a baseline for institutes involved in the development of professional education and training programs. II – Leadership Training Resources Available The WG acknowledged that the UN Senior Mission Leaders course (SML) is the principal mechanism for the education and training of senior leaders. Variants of the UN SML course were developed by the African Union, European Union (EU) (EU crisis management missions), and the Center for Civil-Military Relations (CCMR). The UN should develop and maintain oversight of SML content, especially if participants are to be qualified for leadership in UN missions. The WG concluded the UN could SML program could benefit 3 ‘international’ contributions: • More systematic funding from UN Member States and/or donor organizations • Identification of qualified subject matter experts and course facilitators