Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 155

FILM-INDUCED SLUM TOURISM: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND MODEL PROPOSAL Other films, although not trip oriented, highlight adventures or romance deeply connected to beautiful landscapes, such as Free Willy (Wearing et al., 2011), Crocodile Dunddee (Steve Pan & Tsang, 2014), Australia (Mitchell & Stewart, 2012), other typical Australian Outback films (Warwick Frost, 2010), James Bond films (Rei- jnders, 2010) and Korean TV-drama Winter Sonata (S. Kim & O’Connor, 2011; S. S. Kim et al., 2010; S. Kim, 2012a, 2012b; Samuel Seongseop Kim, Agrusa, Lee, & Chon, 2007; T. H. Lee & Yoo, 2011). Films that use the place merely as a location, while the story takes place in an imaginary land (or in a fictional version of the real world, such as in futuristic films) also tend to cause more positive effects, as negative aspect are not associated with the real location place. Those films are also often examined by studies that analyse their effects on tourism demand and supply. Examples are The Lord of the Rings (Buchmann et al., 2010; Buchmann, 2010; Carl et al., 2007; W Glen Croy, 2010; Goh, 2013), Mad Max (Mitchell & Stewart, 2012) and Avatar (Ke & Li-ying, 2012). Accordingly, when studies adopt the whole set of films shot for depicting a destination, motion pictures with the mentioned characteristics tend to be high- lighted. This happens in studies that examine for instance, films and TV-dramas starred by Korean celebrities (S. Lee et al., 2008; Rajaguru, 2013), Korean dramas in general (Kim et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2010; Lin & Huang, 2008; Su et al., 2011; Wong & Lai, 2013), products starred by a specific actor (Graham Busby, Ergul, & Eng, 2013), British cinema and TV (Tooke & Baker, 1996) exported Turkish Soap operas (Balli et al., 2013), or all films portraying a set of countries, like Indonesia and Ireland (Noelle O’Connor & Kim, 2013); a specific country, like Spain (Mestre et al., 2008), or specific destinations, like Seville (Oviedo-García et al., 2014) or Yorkshire (Noëlle O’Connor et al., 2010). Contrasting with this pattern, the studies carried out by Shani’s et al. (2009) and Hudson et al. (2011) examined the effects of a controversial film that mix beau- tiful landscapes with social problems and other negative aspects of the portrayed destination. The former showed that even films that detract the depicted location may still engender desire to visit it. Although negatively impacting most of the image attributes, the film The motorcycle Diaries increased respondents’ intentions to visit South America. This assumption is reinforced by Loureiro & de Araújo (2015), who obtained similar results with a study that adopted City of God as a focal film. Those studies’ results are in line with Gammack (2005), who states that even films that highlight negative aspects of the destinations may still be helpful to attract specific segments of tourists who are interested on elements normally return to the content page 155