Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 151

FILM-INDUCED SLUM TOURISM: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND MODEL PROPOSAL approach to examine the impact of films on specific destinations. The first of those (Tooke & Baker, 1996) provide initial acknowledgement to the fact that films indeed have potential to influence tourist flows to the depicted destinations. This acknowledgement was further expanded to different destinations around the world, as well as to the case of soap operas by more recent case studies (Balli, Balli, & Cebeci, 2013; Mitchell & Stewart, 2012; O’Connor & Kim, 2013). Those works did not offer, however, theoretical insights on how this process took place. Those were first provided by studies employing quasi-experimental approaches (Hahm & Wang, 2011; Simon Hudson, Wang, & Gil, 2011; H. Kim & Richardson, 2003; Shani, Wang, Hudson, & Gil, 2009; Soliman, 2011). The comparison of destination image and visit intentions before and after watching a certain film allowed those stud- ies to expand the understanding of destination image by considering the affective dimension in addition to the cognitive one and conclude that the general image mediates a film’s effect on visit intentions. Bolder theoretical contributions on film tourism, however, came from studies that undertook surveys with actual tourists, combining real-world data with sta- tistical support. Such approach allowed for the first time the acknowledgment of TV-series’ (Kim, Agrusa, Chon, & Cho, 2008) and feature films’ (Im & Chon, 2008) impacts on travel decisions, as well as the role of specific variables in this process, such as celebrity involvement (Lee, Scott, & Kim, 2008), cultural proximity (Su, Huang, Brodowsky, & Kim, 2011), vocal and visual effects (Rajaguru, 2013), audi- ence involvement (Kim & Assaker, 2014), and the role of a specific actor (Graham Busby, Huang, & Jarman, 2013). Moreover, the approach also permitted a deeper analysis of the effects on destination image (Busby & Haines, 2013) through the comparison of the one projected by the film with that held by visitors. Studies on film tourism from the demand side also analyse the films themselves (Cordeiro, 2011; Warick Frost, 2006; Martin-Jones, 2014; Mestre, del Rey, & Stanishevski, 2008) or secondary data (Redondo, 2012) in order to examine the characteristics of motion pictures that make them attract viewers to the depicted destinations. Other studies also analyse segmentation (Bolan, Boy, & Bell, 2011; Kim, Lee, & Chon, 2010), motivations (Connell & Meyer, 2009; Oviedo-García, Castellanos-Verdugo, Trujillo- García, & Mallya, 2014; Reijnders, 2011; Rittichainuwat & Rattanaphinanchai, 2015; Suni & Komppula, 2012) and experiences (Buchmann, 2010; Carl, Kindon, & Smith, 2007; Goh, 2013; Kim, Kim, & Heo, 2014; S. Kim & O’Connor, 2011; S. Kim, 2010, 2012a, 2012b; Lee & Yoo, 2011) of film tourists; and film tourism demand’s implications for environmental conservation (Pan & Ryan, 2011; Wearing, Buchmann, & Jobberns, return to the content page 151