Arctic Yearbook 2015 - Page 304

304 Arctic Yearbook 2015 K. Emmerson defines regionalism as a “process” where “proximate states, societies, or economies” work together with the end goal of “forming or nourishing a shared identity, improving conditions and solving problems, or projecting influence beyond the region” (Emmerson 2008: 12).4 As evidenced by the latter portion of Emmerson’s definition, hard power plays a central role in regionalism. When security considerations begin to dominate intraregional linkages, another phenomenon, known as a “regional security complex (RSC),” emerges. Here a second definition is necessary. Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver make the case for a Southeast Asian RSC noting “In order to qualify as an RSC, a group of states or other entities must possess a degree of security interdependence sufficient both to establish them as a linked set and to differentiate them from surrounding security regions” (Buzan et al. 2003: 48). While a Southeast Asian RSC may be more easily visible than an Arctic RSC, we should be careful not to overlook the fact that military activity is taking place beneath Arctic ice. Furthermore, as ice levels decrease, the High North only becomes more distinct from neighboring RSCs. ASEAN proved a region could be constructed where one previously did not exist, and this example should resonate with Arctic policy-makers. Non-interference and conflict resolution Founded as a regional association and not as a formal rule-based organization, ASEAN has succeeded in crafting a normative mosaic that is forceful yet non-invasive. One could describe ASEAN membership as an “outpatient procedure” with respect to sovereignty protections. The core norm written into the ASEAN Declaration is that of non-interference; the Association is “determined to ensure their [member states’] stability and security from external interference in any form or manifestation” (ASEAN 1967). This doctrine was taken a step further in 1971 with the five founding ASEAN states proclaiming “South East Asia as a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN), free from any form or manner of interference by outside powers” (ASEAN 1971). Clearly the rhetoric has aligned with r