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170 Arctic Yearbook 2015 3. Similar demographic transitions were also experienced in other northern regions such as Khanty Mansiysk in western Siberia (see Wilson 2001). 4. An ostrog is a stockade town that served as a colonial outpost in Siberia, the Russian Far East and Russian America during the Tsarist period. 5. The Association of Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka just celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2015 (see Kopylova 2015). 6. Authority over lands protected for the traditional use of indigenous peoples is shared between the federal and regional governments. Often federal and regional statutes disagree or are in conflict. While the laws On Obshinas and On TTUNs were created to give indigenous peoples free and hereditary use and transfer of traditional lands, the Forest Code of the Russian Federation excludes indigenous peoples from holding land tenure rights (Laletin 2012). References Abryutina, L. (2007a). Some SLiCA Project Results from Chukotka. Études Inuit Studies. 31(1-2): 287302. Abryutina, L. (2007b). Aboriginal Peoples of Chukotka. Études Inuit Studies, 31(1): 325-341. Arctic Council. (2011). Permanent Participants: Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North. Available from: http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/permanentparticipants/russian-association-of-indigenous-peoples-of-the-north-raipon/123resources/about/permanent-participants. (Date accessed: May 25, 2015). Ainana, L., M. Zelensky, & V. Bychkov. (2001). Preservation and Development of the Subsistence Lifestyle and Traditional use of Natural Resources by Native People (Eskimo and Chukchi) in Selected Coastal Communities (Inchoun, Uelen, Lorino, Lavrentiya, New Chaplino, Sireniki, Nunligran, Enmelen) of Chukotka in the Russian Far East during 1999. Anchorage, Alaska: US National Park Service. Bogoslovskaya, L. (2000, October). Will Eskimos Live in Chukotka in the Third Millenium. ANSIPRA Bulletin. 4A: 1-20. Borodin, R. G., V. M. Etylin, O. V. Etylina, D. Litovka, V. V. Melnikov, L. L. Solovenchuk, N. G. Shevchenko, et al. (2002). Cultural, Traditional and Nutritional Needs of the Aboriginal Population of Chukotka for Gray Whales and Bowhead Whales 2003-2007: Russian Federation. Chukotka Autonomous Region Official Site. (n.d.). Available from: http://xn--80atapud1a.xn-p1ai/en/region/history/soviet-chukotka/. (Date accessed: September 14, 2015). Chukotskii Avtonomnyi Okrug. (2015). Predstaviteli Pravitel’stva Chukotki Prinyali Uchastie vo Vstreche s Senatorami Soveta Federatsii RF ot Regiona” (Representatives of the Government of Chukotka Took Part in a Meeting with the Senators of the federation Council of the Region). www.chukotken.ru/press/news4904.html. (Date accessed: August 27, 2015). Crotty, J. & S. M. Hall. (2013). Environmental Responsibility in a Transition Context – Russian NGO Perception and Response. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. 31: 667-681. At the Margins