Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 497

Arctic Yearbook 2014 497 more than 500 tons be certificated (all will be required to obtain a Polar Ship Certificate from the flag state) and also carry a Polar Operations Operating Manual that is unique to a given ship. The history of the development of a polar code extends back to the end of the Soviet Union and initiatives by several nations including Germany and Canada. An IMO Outside Working Group (OWG) was established in 1993 and this experts group, led by Canada, drafted the framework for an initial Polar Code during a five-year period. Key strategies of the OWG included: building on existing IMO ship rules and standards for safety, environmental protection, and training (rather than replacement or duplication); focusing equally on the safety of human life and protection of the marine environment; and, using the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) as the legal framework for t