Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 425

Arctic Yearbook 2014 425 weather. As such, it improves the NATO’s ability to effectively fight and survive in an Arctic environment. It is believed, that following the withdrawal from ISAF mission, NATO is returning to the type of winter warfare drills that were used during the Cold War. Some of the equipment (for example winter clothes) that were specially prepared for Afghan mountains will be possible to use also in cold Arctic weather conditions (Pettersen, T. 2014, March 21). Exercise Cold Response in final phase. Barents Observer. Retrieved from http://barentsobserver.com/en/security/2014/03/exercise-coldresponse-final-phase-21-03). 22. The readiness of Russian navy is being checked by the military exercises. In 2011, Russia conducted large-scale military exercises of Northern Fleet, which included the only aircraft carrier “Admiral Kuznetsov”, the Navy’s flagship nuclear-powered heavy cruiser the "Pyotr Veliky", also submarines, surface vessels, ground force and air force. (Pettersen, T. 2011, September 9). Russian navy flexing muscles in Barents Sea. Barents Observer. Retrieved from http://barentsobserver.com/en/regions/russian-navy-flexing-muscles-barents-sea . References Argumenty i fakty (2014, June 1). Sostav Severnogo flota RF. Infografika (Structure of the Russian Northern Fleet. Infographics). Argumenty i fakty. Retrieved from http://www.aif.ru/infographic/1179880. Arctic.ru (2014). Geography & Population. Retrieved from http://arctic.ru/geography-population. Baev, P. (2009). Troublemaking and Risk-Taking: The North in Russian Military Activities. In Rowe, E.,W. (ed.) (2009). Russia and the North (pp. 17-34). Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. BBC News (2013, December 11). Putin orders Russian military to boost Arctic presence. BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-25331156. Blank, S. (2014, 22 September). Moscow Begins Building a New Black Sea Fleet. Eurasia Daily Monitor (The Jamestown Foundation). 11(166). Retrieved from http://www.jamestown.org/programs/edm/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=42852&tx_ttne ws[backPid]=756&no_cache=1#.VCgnKRZr9co. Bukharin, O. (2006). Russia’s Nuclear Icebreaker Fleet. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group, pp.2531. Byers, M. (2014). The Emerging Arctic. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/arctic/emerging-arctic/p32620#!/?cid=soc-Facebook-in-infoguidethe_emerging_arctic-032514#overview. Heininen, L., Sergunin, A., Yarovoy, G. (2013, September 30). Russian Military Strategies in the Arctic. Valdai Discussion Club. Retrieved from http://valdaiclub.com/defense/63263.html. Humpert, M. (2013). The Future of Arctic Shipping: A New Silk Road for China? Arctic Shipping. The Arctic Institute. Retrieved from http://www.thearcticinstitute.org. Isachenkov, V. (2009, March 27). Russia Plans to Create Arctic Military Force. Associated Press Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/27/russia-tocreate-arcticm_n_180157.html. Keil, K. (2014). Evaluation of the Arctic Shipping Season 2013. The Arctic Institute. Retrieved from http://www.thearcticinstitute.org/2014/01/evaluation-of-arctic-shipping-season.html. Russian Military Build-Up in the Arctic