Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 396

Arctic Yearbook 2014 396 30. For the US Department of Defense’s Arctic strategy published in November 2013, see http://www.defense.gov/pubs/2013_Arctic_Strategy.pdf. 31. The ‘Arctic five’ held Ministerial meetings at Ilulissat, Greenland, in 2008 and near Ottawa, Canada, in 2010. 32. Texts available at http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/documentarchive/category/20-main-documents-from-nuuk, and http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2013/05/209406.htm, respectively. 33. The EU Arctic policy documents most frequently cited in the literature were issued by the European Parliament and Commission and so do not bind the Member States, but the Council did issue policy conclusions in 2009 as well in 2014 on the basis of the Commission’s 2008 and 2012 submissions – see http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/11181 4.pdf. 34. For comparison, the EU gets only brief coverage in other national strategies aside from Finland’s (the 2010 version, see http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/images/stories/attachments/Finland.pdf), but the German document (note 9 above) states as the last of its guiding principles that Germany ‘supports an active Arctic policy by the European Union and is committed to ensure horizontal coherence in (the Union’s) foreign and security policy and in the policy fields of research, environment protection, energy and natural resources, industry and technology, transport and fisheries.’ (Author’s translation). The downplaying of the EU in the British text may variously reflect a currently Eurosceptical British government; a wish not to inflame anti-EU sentiment in some AC (e.g. Canadian indigenous) circles; and a sense that the EU’s Arctic policies and role are still a work in progress. 35. See http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/resources/news-and-press/newsarchive/782-the-task-force-for-action-on-black-carbon-and-methane. 36. ‘The Council expresses its readiness to consider a proposal to put in place a regulatory framework for the part of the seas not yet covered by an international conservation system by extending the mandate of relevant Regional Fisheries Management Organisations or any other proposal to that effect agreed by the relevant parties. Until such a framework is in place, the Council favours a temporary ban on new fisheries in those waters.’ Op. cit. at note 33 above, p. 3. 37. The AC’s Kiruna Ministerial meeting agreed to establish a Circumpolar Business Forum which is expected among other things to discuss responsible business governance in the region. See http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/resources/news-andpress/news-archive/732-press-release-15-may-kiruna. 38. ‘Norway’s new government drops Lofoten oil’, Barents Observer 1 October 2013, available at http://barentsobserver.com/en/politics/2013/10/norways-new-government-dropslofoten-oil-01-10. 39. An incident of cruise ship stranding in December 2013 has exacerbated these debates; see e.g. ‘Antarctica expedition: are research and tourism a toxic mix?’, Christian Science Bailes