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Arctic Yearbook 2014 394 the European Union (EU) was left unresolved on that occasion. A number of nongovernmental and international governmental organizations also hold Observer status. 6. See http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/arctic-council/observers; and for analysis, P. Graczyk & T. Koivurova (January, 2013). A new era in the Arctic Council’s external relations? Broader consequences of the Nuuk observer rules for Arctic governance. Polar Record. ref.10.1017/S0032247412000824. 7. See for instance, on the Chinese case, L. Jakobson (2010). China Prepares for an Ice-free Arctic. SIPRI: Stockholm. Avaiable at http://books.sipri.org/fi...sight/SIPRIInsight1002.pdf. 8. National situations and motives vary in this context; for some examples see A. Spruds and T. Rostoks (2014) (eds.). Perceptions and Strategies of Arcticness in the sub-Arctic Europe, Riga: Latvian Institute of International Affairs. Available at: http://liia.lv/en/publications/percepetions-and-strategies-of-arcticness-in-sub-a/. 9. A. J. K. Bailes & B. í Jákupsstovu (December, 2013). The Faroe Islands and the Arctic: Genesis of a Strategy. Stjórnmál og Stjórnsýsla (University of Iceland). Available at http://www.irpa.is/article/view/1228. 10. The text is at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/2512 16/Adapting_To_Change_UK_policy_towards_the_Arctic.pdf. For the Ministerial comments on publication see https://www.gov.uk/government/news/respecting-thearctic-promoting-uk-interests. 11. (In the author’s English translation) ‘Guidelines for Germany’s Arctic Policy; accepting responsibility, seizing opportunities’, Auswärtiges Amt (Berlin) November 2013, available at http://www.auswaertigesamt.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/658714/publicationFile/185889/Arktisleitlinien.pdf; English summary at http://www.auswaertigesamt.de/EN/Aussenpolitik/InternatRecht/Einzelfragen/Arktis/ArktisGrundlagentext_node.html. 12. See www.spri.cam.ac.uk. 13. See http://www.antarctica.ac.uk. 14. There is more on the scientific contribution in section 3 below. 15. L. Heininen & B. Segerståhl. (2002). International Negotiations Aiming at a Reduction of Nuclear Risks in the Barents Sea Region. In R. Avenhaus, V. Kremenyuk and G. Sjöstedt (eds.). Containing the Atom. International Negotiations on Nuclear Security and Safety (pp. 243270). New York: Lexington Books. 16. ‘Centrica, E.ON and RWE lead Arctic rush for oil’, The Guardian online 4 July 2013, available at http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/jul/04/uk-energycompanies-arctic-oil. 17. The UK was among observers at the Nordic defence ministers’ latest meeting at Helsinki in December 2013, see Bailes