Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 310

310         Arctic Yearbook 2014 use in the north. It should be noted that we aim not to provide representative and comprehensive explanations, but rather to explore the relevance of socio-natural capital via specific case studies. Material and Methods This study consists of three type of research material: 1) previous research, 2) interviews and 3) stakeholder consultations on land use contradictions in Arctic areas in the European Union. The previous research literature consists of published examinations on reindeer herding and related land use contradictions, mainly in Finland (e.g. Raitio 2008; Sarkki 2011; Heikkinen et al. 2014). Furthermore, we conducted three telephone interviews on a topical case concerning a conflict between Sámi reindeer herding and mining in Gállok (Kallak), Sweden. Interviewees included an academic studying the conflict, and two members of the Sámi reindeer herding community. These materials were examined in order to identify gaps in socio-natural capital regarding Fennoscandian land use especially from reindeer herding’s perspective (section 3). In order to analyse the material systematically, we examined it from the point of view of social capital and perceptions on sustainable use of natural capital as well as on procedural and distributional justice. We then used qualitative directive content analysis (Hsieh & Shannon 2005) to classify the material belonging to four clusters regarding their relationships to social capital and perceptions on sustainable use of natural capital as well as processes and outcomes. The clusters were given informative titles and represent problems regarding sustainability of land use from reindeer herders’ perspective, and can be conceptualised as gaps in socio-natural capital (Figure 1). Figure 1. Four gaps in socio-natural capital regarding reindeer herding and other land uses in northern Finland. The identified gaps provide increased understanding on the problems that could be eased by further developing socio-natural capi [