Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 295

295 Arctic Yearbook 2014 Tourism development has historically been driven by entrepreneurs within a weak organizational and institutional framework (Jóhannesson & Huijbens 2013). A general tourism plan has been in place from 1996, but crucial issues of planning have not been dealt with adequately and there is need for a revision of tourism policy in Iceland with respect to both the country’s tourism resources and to tourism as a resource for socio-economic growth. Those include defining and zoning particular areas for development and protection, monitoring and planning of tourist flows, securing the necessary investment in infrastructural improvements ranging from toilet facilities to road construction and general policy about accessibility and entrance fees for natural attractions. Tourism in Iceland is largely concentrated both in time and space. The result is that some of the island’s key attractions have come under severe pressure. The Arctic and sub-Arctic natural environment is extremely vulnerable for degradation due to too much tourist flows. Research on carrying capacity is being undertaken at several places but studies of social implications of tourism are still largely absent (Ólafsdóttir & Runnström 2013; Sæþórsdóttir 2010). This includes studies of economic benefits of tourism development. There \