Arctic Yearbook 2014
North America, Japan and Oceania
Former Soviet Union
Central and South Africa
North Africa and Middle East
The former Yugoslavia
Central and Northern Europe
municipalities bordering Finland. In general, however, regional differences did not play a crucial role
in employment opportunities and the size of earnings. The interaction between ethnic group labour
market outcomes and local labour markets was not pronounced. The main finding concerning these
interactions was that Swedish-born women and immigrant women from the Nordic countries had
lower earnings and LFP when residing in remote areas, but immigrant women from the former
Soviet Union, Asia, South America, North America, Japan, and Oceania had lower earnings and
employment rates in the cities. Earnings of immigrant women were slightly higher in the remote
areas of Norrbotten.
Figure 8: Immigrant women’s LFP rate deficits relative to Swedish-born women after five years since immigration. The
blue and red bars show the differences after controlling for the set of explanatory variables. The green bars show the
differences in the raw data.
The estimates of regressions, where individuals from three border municipalities were excluded, are
not presented in the paper, but available upon request. Differences between Swedish-born and
Finnish mothers did not disappear after eliminating “the border effect”.
Arctic labour markets have been experiencing a remarkable growth over past decades. Mainly, this
has been due to exploration of natural resource deposits and new technologies of their extraction.