Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 112

Arctic Yearbook 2014 112 There were considerable differences in education levels between the groups. The proportion of women with a university education was the highest among immigrants from North America, Japan, Oceania and the former Soviet Union (68% and 64% in 2009, respectively) whereas the majority of Swedish-born women in the sample had only completed secondary school education (62% in 1995 and 55% in 2009). In the group consolidated as “refugees”, over 40% had only completed primary education or lower (Figure 2). Family It was assumed that women of different cultural backgrounds would diverge in labour supply while having small children. A dummy variable was constructed to show the presence of children 1-5 years old (children of pre-school age), and this was included in the estimations of the interactions with types of immigrants. It was also expected that the number of children per women would vary significantly between the groups. Therefore, estimates were controlled by the number of children aged 0–3 years, 4–6 years, 7–10 years, 11–15 years, and 16–17 years. In 40%–50% of the observations, women originating from the “refugee” groups had pre-school age children. In other groups, 20%–30% of the observations had children of these ages. The highest numbers of schoolage children were in groups of Swedish-born women and immigrants originating from Cent